Basic Information:

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  • Today, we are designing revolutionary new machines that are the ultimate tools, forged from individual atoms. In these machines we discover new technology which helps us very easily to work like nanotechnology.
  • Nanotechnology is so smart technology like LASER(in laser we made holomark by using nano technology),robot arms,wide motors and even whole computer.

I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each otherwhich are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of manufacturing things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big. — Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics.

 
A Basic Definition: 
 
Nanotechnology is the Engineering of functional Systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.
In its original sense, ‘Nanotechnology’ refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.
·  That means nanotechnology is the best technology in the world which describe below, the future of the nanotechnology in three stages of age.
 
 
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 Near Time (present to 2030):

 Nanomachines in our bodies-

   In the near future, we should accept a new variety of Nano devices coursing throughout the bloodstream. In the movie Fantastic Voyage, a crew of scientists and their ship are miniaturized to the size of a red blood cell. Finally, they discover a new nanotechnology and they get a cancer patient and take him in the laboratory and then zoom their body in computer and zoom blood shell and then remove the cancer virus.
  
     Another example is the nanoparticles created by the scientists at BIND biosciences in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Its nanoparticles are made of polylactic acid and copolylactic acid/glycolic acid, which can hold drugs inside a molecular mass. This creates the payload of the nanoparticle. The guidance system of the nanoparticle is the peptides that coat the particle and specifically bind to the target cell. Clinical trials on human patients start in a few years.
DNA Chips-
      In the future we will have tiny sensors in our clothes, body and bathroom, constantly monitoring our health and detecting diseases like cancer years before they become a danger. The key to this is the DNA Chip which promises a “laboratory on a chip.” Like the tricorder of Star Trek, these tiny sensors will give us a medical analysis within minutes.

Carbon Nanotubes-

   Carbon nanotubes are made of individual carbon atoms bonded to form a tube. Imagine chicken wire, where every joint is a carbon atom. Now roll up the chicken wire into a tube, and you have the geometry of a carbon nanotube. Carbon nanotubes are formed every time ordinary soot is created, but scientist never realized that carbon atoms could bond in such a novel way. One preview of the power of nanotechnology is Carbon Nanotubes. In principle, carbon nanotubes are stronger than steel and can also conduct electricity, so carbon based computers are a possibility. Although they are enormously strong, one problem is that they must be in pure form, and the longest pure carbon fiber is only a few centimeters long. But one day, entire computers may be made of carbon nanotubes and other molecular structures.

Quantum Computers-

    A quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. A single qubit can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states; a pair of qubitscan be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three cubits in any superposition of 8 states.
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Atomic Transistors-

    A single-atom transistor is a device that can open and close an electrical circuit by the controlled and reversible repositioning of one single atom. The Single-Atom Transistor was invented and first demonstrated in 2004 by Prof. Thomas Schimmel and his team of scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (former University of Karlsruhe). By means of a small electrical voltage applied to a control electrode, the so-called Gate electrode, a single atom is reversibly moved in and out of a tiny junction, in this way closing and opening an electrical contact.

     Therefore, the Single-Atom Transistor works as an atomic switch or atomic relay, where the switchable atom opens and closes the gap between two tiny electrodes called the Source and Drain. The Single-Atom Transistor opens perspectives for the development of future atomic-scale logics and quantum electronics.
 
    At the same time, the device of the Karlsruhe team of researchers marks the lower limit of miniaturization, as feature sizes smaller than one atom cannot be produced lithographically. The device represents a quantum transistor, the conductance of the Source-Drain channel being defined by the rules of quantum mechanics. It can be operated at room temperature and at ambient conditions, i.e. neither cooling nor vacuum are required.
 
   Few atom transistors have been developed at Waseda University and at Italian CNR by Takahiro Shinada and Enrico Prati, who observed the Anderson-Mott transition in miniature by employing arrays of only two, four and six individually implanted As or P atoms.

Post Silicon Era-

    Moore’s law,one of the foundations of the informationsrevalutions,cannot last forever.the future of the world economy and and the destinyof of nations ay ultimately hinge on which nation develops a suitable replacement of silicon.The current revalution in silicon based computers has been driven by one overriding fact;the ability of UV light to etch smaller and smaller transistor onto a water of silicon.Today,a pentium chip may have several hundred million transistors on a wafer the size of your thumnail.Because the wavelenghth of UV light can be as small as to nanometers,it is possible to use etching techniques to carve out components that are only thirty atoms across.But this process cannot continue forever.Sooner or later,it collapses,for several reasons.


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Midcentury (2030 to 2070):

Shape Shifting-

     In the movie Terminator 2;Judgement day,Arnold Schwarzenegger is attacked by an advanced robot from the future,a T-1000,which is made of liquid metal.Resembling a quivering mass of mercury,it can change shape and slither its way through any obstacle.it can seep through the tiniest cracks and fashion deadly weapons by reshaping its hand and feet.And then it can suddenly re form into its original shape to carry on its murderous rampage.The T-1000 appeared to be unstoppable,The perfect killing machine.

 All this was science fiction,of course.The technology of today does not allow you to change a solid object at will.Yet by midcentury a form of this shape-shifting technology may become commonplace. In fact,one of the main companies driving this technology is Intel.

Farfuture(2070 to 2100):

Holy Grail;The Replicator-

     By 2100, advocates of nanotechnology envision an even more poerful machine;a molecular assembler,or”replicator”,capable of creating anything.It would consist of a machine perhaps the size of a washing machine.You would put the basic raw materials into the machine and then push a button.Trillions upon trillions of nanobots would then coverage on the raw materials,each one programmed to take them apart molecule molecule and then reassemble them into an entirely new product.the machine would be able to manufacture anything.the replicator would be the crowing achivements of engineering and science,the ultimate culmination of our struggles ever since we pickes up the first tool back in prehistory.
 

Gray Goo-

    The earliest proposals for molecular manufacturing technologies echoed biological systems. Huge numbers of tiny robots called “assemblers” would self-replicate, then work together to build large products, much like termites building a termite mound.

    Such systems appeared to run the risk of going out of control, perhaps even “eating” large portions of the biosphere. Eric Drexler warned in 1986, “We cannot afford certain kinds of accidents with replicating assemblers.” Since then, however, Drexler and others have developed models for making safer and more efficient machine-like systems that resemble an assembly line in a factory more than anything biological. These mechanical designs were described in detail in Drexler’s 1992 seminal reference work, Nanosystems, which does not even mention free-floating autonomous assemblers. 

     Replicating assemblers will not be used for manufacturing. Factory designs using integrated nanotechnology will be much more efficient at building products, and a personal nanofactory is nothing like a grey goo nanobot. A stationary tabletop factory using only preprocessed chemicals would be both safer and easier to build. Like a drill press or a lathe, such a system could not run wild. Systems like this are the basis for responsible molecular manufacturing proposals. To evaluate Eric Drexler’s technical ideas on the basis of grey goo is to miss the far more important policy issues created by general-purpose nanoscale manufacturing.

     A grey goo robot would face a much harder task than merely replicating itself. It would also have to survive in the environment, move around, and convert what it finds into raw materials and power. This would require sophisticated chemistry. None of these functions would be part of a molecular manufacturing system. A grey goo robot would also require a relatively large computer to store and process the full blueprint of such a complex device. 

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